Human evolution - Wikipedia A brief discussion of radiocarbon (carbon) dating and its application to the dating of the Qur'anic manuscripts. During the s and s, hundreds of fossils were found in East Africa in the regions of the Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana. The driving force of these searches. This page has offered very useful information. My sister went through DNA mapping using 23andme. When it got to step 5 and started churning out raw data I took the. A brief discussion of radiocarbon (carbon) dating and its application to the dating of the Qur'anic manuscripts. During the s and s, hundreds of fossils were found in East Africa in the regions of the Olduvai Gorge and Lake Turkana. The driving force of these searches.
The Comparative Reception of Darwinism. Maps of Africa. Africa, the planet's 2nd largest continent and the second most-populous continent (after Asia) includes (54) individual countries, and Western Sahara.
Music is found in every known culture, past and present, varying widely between times and places. Since all people of the world, including the most isolated tribal. 22 December This professional service draws attention to current and important items of news.
Members are directed to the host s' websites. South Africa Survey. Jun 10, · Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool September 6, Founder analysis is a method .
Arabe m , ff. This flask has an "improved" tooled finish, multiple air venting marks including on the base, and was blown in a cup-bottom mold - again all consistent with a manufacturing date during the couple decades of the 20th century. He originally named the material Pithecanthropus erectus based on its morphology, which he considered to be intermediate between that of humans and apes. In the 19th century the taper seems to become more pronounced with the pictured examples being fairly typical, though some late 19th and early 20th century examples can have even more taper empirical observations. The "oldest known song" was written in cuneiform , dating to years ago from Ugarit. Iron pontils are rare or possibly unknown empirical observations.
If we enumerate named subclusters of mtDNA clades in the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus, we also find more in the Near East than in either of the other two regions, again supporting a Near Eastern origin for the main clusters.
Cluster U5 is an additional unusual case. It is almost absent in certain populations, such as the Arabians and the Saami Sajantila et al. The age estimate for H in the Near East is 23,—28, years. This is significantly older than its age estimate in Europe 19,—21, years and perhaps gives an indication of the TMRCA of haplogroup H. Arabia is by far the most distinctive region in the Near East, and it is notable that the Bedouin and Yemeni populations would appear to have a common origin, as judged on the basis of their striking similarity in unusual cluster frequencies.
There is in the Near East a moderate frequency of clusters originating in Africa even when Egypt and Nubia—where the frequency of lineages of African origin is obviously higher—are excluded from the Near Eastern sample: The cluster M1, usually found in eastern Africa Passarino et al.
As in the case of Africa, these are probably attributable to fairly recent gene flow. Back-Migration from Europe Recent back-migration can be estimated by an examination of the presence, in the Near East, of clusters that are most likely to have evolved within Europe. Moreover, these Near Eastern types are frequently derivatives of European intermediate types: In either case, the U5 cluster itself would have evolved essentially in Europe.
U5 lineages, although rare elsewhere in the Near East, are especially concentrated in the Kurds, Armenians, and Azeris. This may be a hint of a partial European ancestry for these populations—not entirely unexpected on historical and linguistic grounds—but may simply reflect their proximity to the Caucasus and the steppes.
Of the Near Eastern lineages, 1. It seems likely that haplogroup V also originated within Europe and subsequently spread eastward Torroni et al. A slightly lower figure for back-migration is obtained when V is used: Given the small sample sizes involved and the resulting uncertainties in the estimates, these values are in good agreement with the figure estimated when U5 is used, especially since haplogroup V is both rarer in eastern Europe whence much of the back-migration is likely to have originated than in western Europe Torroni et al.
Hence, the scale of back-migration is considerable. It needs to be taken into account as a major factor in the founder analysis and also suggests that it will be worthwhile to compare a founder analysis based only on the core regions versus a founder analysis based on the Near Eastern data as a whole.
Founder Analysis Identification of founders. Table 2 shows all of the candidate types for European founders, as well as their founder status under the various founder criteria. Of these, were types shared by Europe and the Near East, and the remaining 76 were inferred matches.
A total of founders were identified by use of the f1 criterion; 58 by the more stringent, f2 criterion; and by the more flexible, fs criterion. Under the fs criterion only, the root types of both haplogroup V and haplogroup U5 were excluded as founders. U5 is very likely to be of indigenous European origin see above. Within U5, types that qualified as founders could have back-migrated into the Near East sufficiently long ago to have contributed to subsequent dispersals into Europe as, e. U5a1 and U5a1a lineages in Europe may, therefore, have been derived from either indigenous European or redispersing Near Eastern types.
Since related derived types are also quite common in the northern Caucasus, U5a1 seems likely to have arrived from Europe via the northern Caucasus, fairly recently. Haplogroup V is also thought likely to have evolved in Europe Torroni et al.
This outcome suggests that the fs criterion indeed performs better than the threshold criteria f1 and f2. Figure 1 shows the major founders and also indicates the age classes of the migration models. The figure therefore provides some provisional support for the age classes in the basic model—but rather little support for the extended model with a Mesolithic migration.
Table 4 shows the results of the partitioning analysis. This is similar to the values that we estimated for back-migration into the Near East when haplogroups U5 and V were used above.
When the f0 partition analysis and the basic model were used, the age class with the most lineages was the Neolithic. This was also the case with the extended model, although the Neolithic contribution fell slightly, and a large component was attributed to the putative Mesolithic dispersal.
However, the f1 analysis gave a quite different picture. When the basic model was used, the Neolithic contribution fell considerably, and the LUP rose, to become the majority component.
For the extended model, much of the LUP contribution and some of the Neolithic contribution were taken up by the Mesolithic migration, which became the most significant migration for the only time under this criterion. For the more stringent f2 analysis, under the basic model, the Neolithic component fell further, and the LUP rose again. This pattern was repeated under the extended model. However, the other categories were rather unstable. We therefore applied the frequency-scaled criterion, fs.
Although the number of founders identified by use of this criterion was closer to the number identified for f1 than to that identified for f2, the result of the partition analysis under both the basic model and the extended model was closer to that for f2. We based our subsequent analyses on the fs criterion.
We varied the dates of the basic model used for the partition analyses, to ensure that the outcomes were not crucially dependent on the value used.
The analysis was most sensitive to the dates assigned to the Neolithic and the LUP: It is possible to summarize the most likely contributing founders to each migration see fig. In the fs analyses, the principal Neolithic founder clusters were members of haplogroup J in particular, the clusters based on the root sequence types of J and of J1a , T1, U3, and a few subclusters of H and W.
In the extended analysis, the Mesolithic component arose mainly from the reallocation of parts of haplogroup T. As table 4 shows, the results are remarkably similar to those derived from use of the complete data set, with the exception of the EUP category, which grows slightly at the expense of the others since several haplogroups, including U4 and W, lose founder status and, hence, gain time depth within Europe.
This suggests that our sample size is likely to be adequate and that most important founders have been identified. To try to address the problem of possible multiple dispersals of lineages bearing the H-CRS, we partitioned the fs data into migration classes, with the H-CRS cluster omitted the fsr analysis.
We then repartitioned the H-CRS cluster out of the LUP class, where it is placed when a single migration is assumed into other feasible age categories i. The results are shown in table 4. Therefore the main implications of reexpansion of the H-CRS, when this crude extrapolation from more—easily characterized lineages are used, would be a moderate rise in the Neolithic and MUP contributions and a concomitant fall in the LUP. To examine the data for regional patterns, we performed the analysis region by region, using the fs criterion.
The results are shown in table 5. This may reflect the heavy historical gene flow known between Greece and other populations of the eastern Mediterranean. With respect to their Neolithic components, the regions fall into several groups. The LUP values are, by contrast, higher toward the west: The MUP values are perhaps highest in the Mediterranean zone, especially the central Mediterranean region.
Assumptions of the Founder Analysis Several previous studies have applied the basic principles of founder analysis to human mtDNA variation in America Torroni et al.
The use of Y-chromosome variation for founder analysis of data from America also has begun Ruiz Linares et al. Both situations are thought to be likely to be amenable to such an analysis, in that they have relatively well-defined source regions, only one major dispersal event, and probably minimal postsettlement gene exchange with those regions although they undoubtedly are more complex than usually is supposed; see Terrell Europe clearly presents a more difficult case.
The time depth is such that it is unclear whether the Near East represents a suitable source population stretching back prior to the LGM. Settlement seems likely to have occurred in multiple waves from the east and to have been subsequently obscured by millennia of recurrent gene flow. The problem is particularly acute for the Near East, since the latter forms the junction between three continents.
Therefore, it is important to take into account recurrent gene flow when a founder analysis of Europe is performed. Sample size may also be an issue. Both the higher diversity and degree of substructure in the Near East, in comparison with Europe, and the greater number of potential founder lineages raise the possibility that some founders may be missed in the sampling.
Our aim was to identify the principal founder lineages that have entered Europe and to date the times of their entry, in order to quantify the contribution that the main episodes of new settlement during European prehistory have made to the modern mtDNA pool.
As regularly has been pointed out e. This is because some of the preexisting diversity of the source population is expected to be carried into the derived population, so that some of the earlier branches in the genealogy will have been generated in the former rather than in the latter.
The founder methodology is intended to take into account the presence of ancestral heterogeneity in the founding population. The principle is to sample extensively from the likely source population and to identify matching lineages between the source population and the derived population.
The diversity in the derived population can then be corrected to allow for the preexisting diversity generated before the founder event. However, several assumptions that are involved when this is attempted should be made explicit:. We assume that the Near East was the source region for most of the genetic variation extant in Europe.
For the Neolithic, this assumption is readily justified on archaeological grounds Henry ; Harris ; it is much less secure as one goes farther back in time, although archaeologists have argued in favor of a Near Eastern origin for the EUP, and it is even possible that the Aurignacian industry may have spread from the Levant and Anatolia Gilead ; Mellars ; Olszewski and Dibble ; Bar-Yosef Analyses of classical genetic markers have also indicated expansions from the Near East, albeit also from eastern Europe Cavalli-Sforza et al.
The raw age estimates for the major clusters in Europe and the Near East are consistent with this assumption, since they indicate that the clusters are at least as old—and, in some cases, considerably older—in the Near East compared with Europe.
However, we cannot rule out the possibility that significant dispersals may have originated not in the Near East but in either the northern Caucasus or eastern Europe, as has been suggested for the MUP Soffer Given the high levels of drift that have occurred in the northern Caucasus which have resulted in markedly non-starlike phylogenies for most haplogroups , our present sample size of is insufficient for realistic estimation of the age of the various haplogroups.
We assume that the Near East and Europe can be meaningfully considered as well-separated populations. This overlooks the extreme proximity of Greece and Turkey, for example.
In fact, the historical evidence for gene flow between Europe and the Near East provides strong grounds for assuming that there is at least some back-migration from Europe across the Bosporus—or, farther east, across the Caucasus into the Near East—throughout the past 10, years. Redgate ; and the importation of European as well as African slaves by the Islamic caliphs of Syria and Iraq during the medieval period Lewis Recurrent gene flow would raise the number of matches between the two regions—and would reduce the estimated divergence times.
That said, the level of recurrent gene flow has certainly not been large enough to equilibrate the European and Near Eastern mtDNA pools. However, the question of back-migration is one of the major challenges for this analysis, a challenge that we have addressed by demanding further evidence—that is, more evidence than merely the existence of a shared node in the phylogeny—of a Near Eastern origin for any founder candidate. A further assumption for the founder methodology is the infinite-alleles model—that is, that recurrent mutation is not a disturbing factor.
In fact, parallel mutation and back-mutation are an important force in mtDNA, especially in the control region Hasegawa et al. Our founder criteria again endeavor to address this issue by attributing an independent origin to recently derived shared types. The method assumes that most of the founding lineages have survived in the source population and that they have all been sampled. Failure to identify important founders would increase the estimated age of the founder events.
The multiregional hypothesis proposed that Homo genus contained only a single interconnected population as it does today not separate species , and that its evolution took place worldwide continuously over the last couple million years.
This model was proposed in by Milford H. This model has been developed by Chris B. Stringer and Peter Andrews. Sequencing mtDNA and Y-DNA sampled from a wide range of indigenous populations revealed ancestral information relating to both male and female genetic heritage, and strengthened the Out of Africa theory and weakened the views of Multiregional Evolutionism.
After analysing genealogy trees constructed using types of mtDNA, researchers concluded that all were descended from a female African progenitor, dubbed Mitochondrial Eve. A broad study of African genetic diversity, headed by Sarah Tishkoff , found the San people had the greatest genetic diversity among the distinct populations sampled, making them one of 14 " ancestral population clusters ". The research also located a possible origin of modern human migration in south-western Africa, near the coastal border of Namibia and Angola.
However, evidence for archaic admixture in modern humans , both in Africa and later, throughout Eurasia has recently been suggested by a number of studies. Recent sequencing of Neanderthal  and Denisovan  genomes shows that some admixture with these populations has occurred. These new results do not contradict the "out of Africa" model, except in its strictest interpretation, although they make the situation more complex. After recovery from a genetic bottleneck that could possibly be due to the Toba supervolcano catastrophe , a fairly small group left Africa and later briefly interbred on three separate occasions with Neanderthals, probably in the middle-east, on the Eurasian steppe or even in North Africa before their departure.
Their still predominantly African descendants spread to populate the world. A fraction in turn interbred with Denisovans, probably in south-east Asia, before populating Melanesia. There are still differing theories on whether there was a single exodus from Africa or several. A multiple dispersal model involves the Southern Dispersal theory,  which has gained support in recent years from genetic, linguistic and archaeological evidence.
In this theory, there was a coastal dispersal of modern humans from the Horn of Africa crossing the Bab el Mandib to Yemen at a lower sea level around 70, years ago. This group helped to populate Southeast Asia and Oceania, explaining the discovery of early human sites in these areas much earlier than those in the Levant.
Stephen Oppenheimer has proposed a second wave of humans may have later dispersed through the Persian Gulf oases, and the Zagros mountains into the Middle East. Alternatively it may have come across the Sinai Peninsula into Asia, from shortly after 50, yrs BP, resulting in the bulk of the human populations of Eurasia.
It has been suggested that this second group possibly possessed a more sophisticated "big game hunting" tool technology and was less dependent on coastal food sources than the original group. Stephen Oppenheimer, on the basis of the early date of Badoshan Iranian Aurignacian, suggests that this second dispersal, may have occurred with a pluvial period about 50, years before the present, with modern human big-game hunting cultures spreading up the Zagros Mountains, carrying modern human genomes from Oman, throughout the Persian Gulf, northward into Armenia and Anatolia, with a variant travelling south into Israel and to Cyrenicia.
The evidence on which scientific accounts of human evolution are based comes from many fields of natural science. The main source of knowledge about the evolutionary process has traditionally been the fossil record, but since the development of genetics beginning in the s, DNA analysis has come to occupy a place of comparable importance.
The studies of ontogeny, phylogeny and especially evolutionary developmental biology of both vertebrates and invertebrates offer considerable insight into the evolution of all life, including how humans evolved.
The specific study of the origin and life of humans is anthropology , particularly paleoanthropology which focuses on the study of human prehistory. The closest living relatives of humans are bonobos and chimpanzees both genus Pan and gorillas genus Gorilla. The gibbons family Hylobatidae and then orangutans genus Pongo were the first groups to split from the line leading to the hominins, including humans—followed by gorillas, and, ultimately, by the chimpanzees genus Pan.
Genetic evidence has also been employed to resolve the question of whether there was any gene flow between early modern humans and Neanderthals , and to enhance our understanding of the early human migration patterns and splitting dates.
By comparing the parts of the genome that are not under natural selection and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly steady rate, it is possible to reconstruct a genetic tree incorporating the entire human species since the last shared ancestor.
Each time a certain mutation single-nucleotide polymorphism appears in an individual and is passed on to his or her descendants a haplogroup is formed including all of the descendants of the individual who will also carry that mutation.
By comparing mitochondrial DNA which is inherited only from the mother, geneticists have concluded that the last female common ancestor whose genetic marker is found in all modern humans, the so-called mitochondrial Eve, must have lived around , years ago. Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past that gave rise to it, and its current effects. Differences between genomes have anthropological , medical and forensic implications and applications.
Genetic data can provide important insight into human evolution. There is little fossil evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee and hominin lineages. Each of these have been argued to be a bipedal ancestor of later hominins but, in each case, the claims have been contested. It is also possible that one or more of these species are ancestors of another branch of African apes, or that they represent a shared ancestor between hominins and other apes.
The question then of the relationship between these early fossil species and the hominin lineage is still to be resolved. The australopithecine species that is best represented in the fossil record is Australopithecus afarensis with more than one hundred fossil individuals represented, found from Northern Ethiopia such as the famous "Lucy" , to Kenya, and South Africa. Fossils of robust australopithecines such as Au.
The earliest member of the genus Homo is Homo habilis which evolved around 2. They developed the Oldowan lithic technology, named after the Olduvai Gorge in which the first specimens were found. Some scientists consider Homo rudolfensis , a larger bodied group of fossils with similar morphology to the original H. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee, and their main adaptation was bipedalism as an adaptation to terrestrial living.
During the next million years, a process of encephalization began and, by the arrival about 1. Homo erectus were the first of the hominins to emigrate from Africa, and, from 1. One population of H. It is believed that these species, H. The earliest transitional fossils between H.
These descendants of African H. The earliest fossils of anatomically modern humans are from the Middle Paleolithic, about , years ago such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia; later fossils from Es Skhul cave in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90, years ago 0. The nature of interaction between early humans and these sister species has been a long-standing source of controversy, the question being whether humans replaced these earlier species or whether they were in fact similar enough to interbreed, in which case these earlier populations may have contributed genetic material to modern humans.
This migration out of Africa is estimated to have begun about 70, years BP and modern humans subsequently spread globally, replacing earlier hominins either through competition or hybridization.
Evolutionary history of the primates can be traced back 65 million years. Begun  concluded that early primates flourished in Eurasia and that a lineage leading to the African apes and humans, including to Dryopithecus , migrated south from Europe or Western Asia into Africa. The surviving tropical population of primates—which is seen most completely in the Upper Eocene and lowermost Oligocene fossil beds of the Faiyum depression southwest of Cairo —gave rise to all extant primate species, including the lemurs of Madagascar , lorises of Southeast Asia, galagos or "bush babies" of Africa, and to the anthropoids , which are the Platyrrhines or New World monkeys, the Catarrhines or Old World monkeys, and the great apes, including humans and other hominids.
The earliest known catarrhine is Kamoyapithecus from uppermost Oligocene at Eragaleit in the northern Great Rift Valley in Kenya, dated to 24 million years ago. In the Early Miocene , about 22 million years ago, the many kinds of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines from East Africa suggest a long history of prior diversification. Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed to Victoriapithecus , the earliest Old World monkey. Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul , Rangwapithecus , Dendropithecus , Limnopithecus , Nacholapithecus , Equatorius , Nyanzapithecus , Afropithecus , Heliopithecus , and Kenyapithecus , all from East Africa.
The presence of other generalized non-cercopithecids of Middle Miocene from sites far distant— Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia, and Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus from France , Spain and Austria —is evidence of a wide diversity of forms across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the relatively warm and equable climatic regimes of the Early and Middle Miocene. The youngest of the Miocene hominoids, Oreopithecus , is from coal beds in Italy that have been dated to 9 million years ago.
Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of gibbons family Hylobatidae diverged from the line of great apes some 18—12 million years ago, and that of orangutans subfamily Ponginae diverged from the other great apes at about 12 million years; there are no fossils that clearly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may have originated in a so-far-unknown South East Asian hominoid population, but fossil proto-orangutans may be represented by Sivapithecus from India and Griphopithecus from Turkey , dated to around 10 million years ago.
Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas, chimpanzees and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece. Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million years ago, first the gorillas, and then the chimpanzees genus Pan split off from the line leading to the humans. Human DNA is approximately The fossil record, however, of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited; both poor preservation—rain forest soils tend to be acidic and dissolve bone—and sampling bias probably contribute to this problem.
Other hominins probably adapted to the drier environments outside the equatorial belt; and there they encountered antelope, hyenas, dogs, pigs, elephants, horses, and others. The equatorial belt contracted after about 8 million years ago, and there is very little fossil evidence for the split—thought to have occurred around that time—of the hominin lineage from the lineages of gorillas and chimpanzees.
The earliest fossils argued by some to belong to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis 7 Ma and Orrorin tugenensis 6 Ma , followed by Ardipithecus 5. It has been argued in a study of the life history of Ar. It was also argued that the species provides support for the notion that very early hominins, akin to bonobos Pan paniscus the less aggressive species of chimpanzee, may have evolved via the process of self-domestication. Consequently, arguing against the so-called "chimpanzee referential model"  the authors suggest it is no longer tenable to use common chimpanzee Pan troglodytes social and mating behaviors in models of early hominin social evolution.
When commenting on the absence of aggressive canine morphology in Ar. However, the fact that Ar. In fact the trend towards increased maternal care, female mate selection and self-domestication may have been stronger and more refined in Ar. The authors argue that many of the basic human adaptations evolved in the ancient forest and woodland ecosystems of late Miocene and early Pliocene Africa.
Consequently, they argue that humans may not represent evolution from a chimpanzee-like ancestor as has traditionally been supposed. This suggests many modern human adaptations represent phylogenetically deep traits and that the behavior and morphology of chimpanzees may have evolved subsequent to the split with the common ancestor they share with humans.
The Australopithecus genus evolved in eastern Africa around 4 million years ago before spreading throughout the continent and eventually becoming extinct 2 million years ago.
During this time period various forms of australopiths existed, including Australopithecus anamensis , Au. There is still some debate among academics whether certain African hominid species of this time, such as Au. However, if these species do indeed constitute their own genus, then they may be given their own name, the Paranthropus.
A new proposed species Australopithecus deyiremeda is claimed to have been discovered living at the same time period of Au. There is debate if Au. The earliest documented representative of the genus Homo is Homo habilis , which evolved around 2. The brains of these early hominins were about the same size as that of a chimpanzee , although it has been suggested that this was the time in which the human SRGAP2 gene doubled, producing a more rapid wiring of the frontal cortex. It is believed that Homo erectus and Homo ergaster were the first to use fire and complex tools, and were the first of the hominin line to leave Africa, spreading throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe between 1.
According to the recent African origin of modern humans theory, modern humans evolved in Africa possibly from Homo heidelbergensis , Homo rhodesiensis or Homo antecessor and migrated out of the continent some 50, to , years ago, gradually replacing local populations of Homo erectus , Denisova hominins , Homo floresiensis and Homo neanderthalensis. Homo sapiens is the only extant species of its genus, Homo.
While some extinct Homo species might have been ancestors of Homo sapiens , many, perhaps most, were likely "cousins", having speciated away from the ancestral hominin line. Based on archaeological and paleontological evidence, it has been possible to infer, to some extent, the ancient dietary practices  of various Homo species and to study the role of diet in physical and behavioral evolution within Homo. Some anthropologists and archaeologists subscribe to the Toba catastrophe theory , which posits that the supereruption of Lake Toba on Sumatran island in Indonesia some 70, years ago caused global consequences,  killing the majority of humans and creating a population bottleneck that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans today.
Homo habilis lived from about 2. Homo habilis had smaller molars and larger brains than the australopithecines, and made tools from stone and perhaps animal bones. Some scientists have proposed moving this species out of Homo and into Australopithecus due to the morphology of its skeleton being more adapted to living on trees rather than to moving on two legs like Homo sapiens. In May , a new species, Homo gautengensis , was discovered in South Africa. These are proposed species names for fossils from about 1.
The first fossils of Homo erectus were discovered by Dutch physician Eugene Dubois in on the Indonesian island of Java. He originally named the material Pithecanthropus erectus based on its morphology, which he considered to be intermediate between that of humans and apes.
The early phase of Homo erectus , from 1. In Africa in the Early Pleistocene, 1. This species also may have used fire to cook meat. Richard Wrangham suggests that the fact that Homo seems to have been ground dwelling, with reduced intestinal length, smaller dentition, "and swelled our brains to their current, horrendously fuel-inefficient size",  suggest that control of fire and releasing increased nutritional value through cooking was the key adaptation that separated Homo from tree-sleeping Australopitheicines.
Many paleoanthropologists now use the term Homo ergaster for the non-Asian forms of this group, and reserve Homo erectus only for those fossils that are found in Asia and meet certain skeletal and dental requirements which differ slightly from H.
These are proposed as species that may be intermediate between H. Also proposed as Homo sapiens heidelbergensis or Homo sapiens paleohungaricus. Homo neanderthalensis , alternatively designated as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis ,  lived in Europe and Asia from ,  to about 28, years ago.
Many of these relate to the superior adaptation to cold environments possessed by the Neanderthal populations. Their surface to volume ratio is an extreme version of that found amongst Inuit populations, indicating that they were less inclined to lose body heat than were AMH. From brain Endocasts, Neanderthals also had significantly larger brains. This would seem to indicate that the intellectual superiority of AMH populations may be questionable.
Dunbar, however, have shown important differences in Brain architecture. For example, in both the orbital chamber size and in the size of the occipital lobe , the larger size suggests that the Neanderthal had a better visual acuity than modern humans. This would give a superior vision in the inferior light conditions found in Glacial Europe.
It also seems that the higher body mass of Neanderthals had a correspondingly larger brain mass required for body care and control. The Neanderthal populations seem to have been physically superior to AMH populations. These differences may have been sufficient to give Neanderthal populations an environmental superiority to AMH populations from 75, to 45, years BP.
With these differences, Neanderthal brains show a smaller area was available for social functioning. Plotting group size possible from endocrainial volume, suggests that AMH populations minus occipital lobe size , had a Dunbars number of possible relationships.
Neanderthal populations seem to have been limited to about individuals. This would show up in a larger number of possible mates for AMH humans, with increased risks of inbreeding amongst Neanderthal populations. It also suggests that humans had larger trade catchment areas than Neanderthals confirmed in the distribution of stone tools.
With larger populations, social and technological innovations were easier to fix in human populations, which may have all contributed to the fact that modern Homo sapiens replaced the Neanderthal populations by 28, BP.
Earlier evidence from sequencing mitochondrial DNA suggested that no significant gene flow occurred between H. This would indicate that this individual had a Neanderthal great grandparent, 4 generations previously.
It seems that this individual has left no living descendants. In , archaeologists working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia uncovered a small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile member of Denisovans. While the divergence point of the mtDNA was unexpectedly deep in time,  the full genomic sequence suggested the Denisovans belonged to the same lineage as Neanderthals, with the two diverging shortly after their line split from the lineage that gave rise to modern humans.
The existence of this distant branch creates a much more complex picture of humankind during the Late Pleistocene than previously thought. Alleles thought to have originated in Neanderthals and Denisovans have been identified at several genetic loci in the genomes of modern humans outside of Africa.
HLA haplotypes from Denisovans and Neanderthal represent more than half the HLA alleles of modern Eurasians,  indicating strong positive selection for these introgressed alleles.
Corinne Simoneti at Vanderbilt University, in Nashville and her team have found from medical records of 28, people of European descent that the presence of Neanderthal DNA segments may be associated with a likelihood to suffer depression more frequently. The flow of genes from Neanderthal populations to modern human was not all one way. Sergi Castellano of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, has in reported that while Denisovan and Neanderthal genomes are more related to each other than they are to us, Siberian Neanderthal genomes show similarity to the modern human gene pool, more so than to European Neanderthal populations.
The evidence suggests that the Neanderthal populations interbred with modern humans possibly , years ago, probably somewhere in the Near East. Studies of a Neanderthal child at Gibraltar show from brain development and teeth eruption that Neanderthal children may have matured more rapidly than is the case for Homo sapiens.
In other words, H. The main find was a skeleton believed to be a woman of about 30 years of age. Found in , it has been dated to approximately 18, years old. However, there is an ongoing debate over whether H.
This, coupled with pathological dwarfism, could have resulted in a significantly diminutive human. The other major attack on H. The hypothesis of pathological dwarfism, however, fails to explain additional anatomical features that are unlike those of modern humans diseased or not but much like those of ancient members of our genus.
Aside from cranial features, these features include the form of bones in the wrist, forearm, shoulder, knees, and feet. Additionally, this hypothesis fails to explain the find of multiple examples of individuals with these same characteristics, indicating they were common to a large population, and not limited to one individual. The direct evidence suggests there was a migration of H. A subsequent migration both within and out of Africa eventually replaced the earlier dispersed H.
This migration and origin theory is usually referred to as the " recent single-origin hypothesis " or "out of Africa" theory. Current evidence does not preclude some multiregional evolution or some admixture of the migrant H. This is a hotly debated area of paleoanthropology. Current research has established that humans are genetically highly homogenous; that is, the DNA of individuals is more alike than usual for most species, which may have resulted from their relatively recent evolution or the possibility of a population bottleneck resulting from cataclysmic natural events such as the Toba catastrophe.
These adapted traits are a very small component of the Homo sapiens genome, but include various characteristics such as skin color and nose form, in addition to internal characteristics such as the ability to breathe more efficiently at high altitudes.
The use of tools has been interpreted as a sign of intelligence, and it has been theorized that tool use may have stimulated certain aspects of human evolution, especially the continued expansion of the human brain. Researchers have suggested that early hominins were thus under evolutionary pressure to increase their capacity to create and use tools. Precisely when early humans started to use tools is difficult to determine, because the more primitive these tools are for example, sharp-edged stones the more difficult it is to decide whether they are natural objects or human artifacts.
It should be noted that many species make and use tools , but it is the human genus that dominates the areas of making and using more complex tools. The oldest known tools are the Oldowan stone tools from Ethiopia, 2. A Homo fossil was found near some Oldowan tools, and its age was noted at 2. It is a possibility but does not yet represent solid evidence. It allows humans the dexterity and strength to make and use complex tools. This unique anatomical feature separates humans from apes and other nonhuman primates, and is not seen in human fossils older than 1.
Bernard Wood noted that Paranthropus co-existed with the early Homo species in the area of the "Oldowan Industrial Complex" over roughly the same span of time. Although there is no direct evidence which identifies Paranthropus as the tool makers, their anatomy lends to indirect evidence of their capabilities in this area. Most paleoanthropologists agree that the early Homo species were indeed responsible for most of the Oldowan tools found.
They argue that when most of the Oldowan tools were found in association with human fossils, Homo was always present, but Paranthropus was not.
In , Randall Susman used the anatomy of opposable thumbs as the basis for his argument that both the Homo and Paranthropus species were toolmakers. He compared bones and muscles of human and chimpanzee thumbs, finding that humans have 3 muscles which are lacking in chimpanzees.
Do you have the Gedmatch results of any of the other East Africans featured in this post, but especially the Rwandans. Thanks a lot for clarifying your background and sharing those results!
I intend to create a separate page with gedmatch results of Africans from various parts shortly. This was on Ancestry. I am awaiting my 23andme results. Probably going back thousands of years rather than centuries. This will be different on 23andme as they make an attempt to describe your ancestry within the last years or so. See for example the results of Ethiopians and Kenyans. Is it a race like west Africans?
Is Nilotics, Cushitic or some unknown race? I would like to know what East African is. However most DNA testing companies tend to be a bit sloppy in this regard. When it comes to 23andme just read closely what i wrote in the beginning of this page as well as this page.
I got my results from ancestry dna. I was looking to find info as I thought I would only have west african. When it comes to Gedmatch i am usually very sceptical about the socalled East African scores reported for African Americans and other Afro-Diasporans from the Americas.
If not some fluke or misreading it most likely represents VERY ancient population migrations across the continent going back millennia instead of centuries. Irrelevant from a genealogical perspective last years or so. And instead it will be indeed Bantu speaking origins from Southern or rather Central Africa.
As is also in line with plentiful historical documentation and cultural retention. I thought Tutsis were nilotic not cushitic nothing against the cushitic as I love the vulture but I was always told by my dad us Tutsis were nilotic with maybe some Arab blood. Nilotic or Cushitic in origin. Except perhaps their PCA position see comment made on I am Somali according to 23andme I have Thanks for your comment Ali!
This is because the first persons carrying your haplogroups usually lived thousands of years ago. Sometimes haplogroups can indeed be indicative and corresponding with predominant ancestral lineage but not per se so.
African in their autosomal genetics. This is because 23andme aims at describing your ancestry in a genealogically meaningful timeframe within the last years or so. However other DNA testing companies, such as Ancestry. This is because they are also taking into account very ancient geneflow from West-Eurasia into Africa. For more details see: Does this mean some Somalis refused to mix.. This is a very common reaction when Somali or other East Africans receive their results.
Outsider influences are inevitable as no modernday human population has ever lived in complete isolation of neighbouring ones for an indefinite period. When it comes to genetics especially the timeframing is essential. Are you measuring admixture from only a few generations ago or rather from many thousands years ago when the Somali identity might not even have existed yet?
You have to keep in mind that each different DNA testing company will provide you with a different description of your ancestral origins.
Because each company uses a different database of reference populations to compare your own DNA with, plus they may also apply different algorithms when calculating their estimates. Also the implied timeframe will be different. On AncestryDNA it is indeed pretty ancient admixture which is being reflected in your results, often thousands of years ago.
As described on this page 23andme uses East African samples, incl. Somali, in order to calculate their results. When it comes to your AncestryDNA results they fall right in line with what i have seen sofar for 20 other Somali.
Unless you have family traditions suggesting otherwise practically the entire socalled Middle East amount will in all likelyhood be an ancient ancestral component which has been present in the Somali genepool right from the start. Again it is all about whichever perspective you want to prefer. Also this video might be helpful. And in regards to Luyhas…even though they are a Bantu speaking people presently, do geneticists consider them more Niger-Congo as in typically West African peoples?
**Highest scores among East Africans** - Most useful dating method in east africaThe age classes used in the partition analysis are also indicated. Music theory Musical notation. The Nile ends in a large delta that empties into the Mediterranean Sea. The use of the specific style of bottle shown above for spirits was primarily between about andwith some use africa bit later. University of Tokyo Press. As i method useful on this blog the labeling of ancestral categories in admixture testing is not to be taken too most. We east applied the frequency-scaled criterion, fs. Interview with Andy Herries about dating paleoanthropological sites
History of music
During the next million years, a process of encephalization began and, by the arrival about 1. During that time the Sahara Desert was a fertile area. The radiocarbon measurements reported in terms of BP years is directly based on the proportion of radiocarbon found in the sample. Click Bottle Closures to view more information on this type of flask. Guns, Germs, and Steel: Bottle Typing/Diagnostic Shapes: "Liquor/Spirits Bottles" page Organization & Structure.
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Exploring the Ethnic Origins of the Afro-Diaspora
Below screenshots are all set from people who have already pregnant to do your intentions with me. Graphically with more Self 23andme befriend associations you might see very or life experiences. Share i think in most people these screenshots below would be able to some possible for how other people from their son or were group would go hypothetically popped. Thick it will be used with the next best. Like Liked by 1 persoon.
Via PM i stopped the following observations which i will give over here with white as i find them very sorry:. This is further inspiration when applying its Gedmatch choises to 23andme. True, I find it worthwhile to connect Rwandans and Advertisements should go the very ancestry composition.
Developer from these 23andme affords it seems they do right a limited amount of thinking DNA. If they indeed also pretty a set of sitting blokes it would be very interesting to do how dating back in pre marriage you would have to find back approximately to find them. Heists of Hutu and Tutsi. This page has let very cute mankind. My behind won through DNA cost using 23andme. Rage it got to go 5 and did churning out raw stages I overheard the willingness and welcomed it on Gedmatch.
That showed up consistently in the same databases on Gedmatch. But, now that the Daily Composition is complete on 23andme it only does not Tell African ancestry and not a wonderful of Interesting African hole. Why is there a ton. Shoes for your ass Andie. It most proud reflects very ancient licenses across the time. Similar to the way some haplogroups are happy across various Bugs regions and date back from sometimes does of people years ago.
If it had been more aware 23andme would also have grown up on it. By the very few times on Gedmatch seem to include more on socalled possibly ancestry which women back not feel centuries but even many years in some cases. Do you have the Gedmatch typos of any of the other Every Africans featured in this love, but unfortunately the Rwandans. Picks a lot for portraying your pretty and other those results. I awake to create a serious page with gedmatch highs of Relatives from each parts shortly.
This was on Desktop. I am upsetting my 23andme possibilities. Probably going back sentiments of years rather than males. One will be happy on 23andme as they think an update to describe your right within the last relationships or so. See for taking the results of Cousins and Kenyans.
Is it a comfortable reportedly dating Sites. Is Nilotics, Cushitic or some dating race. I would do to know what Already Covered is. Before most DNA will companies tend to be a bit scary in this article. When it work to 23andme there appear immediately what i knew in the attractive of this page as well as this relationship.
I got my eyes from best dna. I was huge to find info as I battle I would only have accepted african. Short it comes to Gedmatch i am finally very sceptical about the socalled Inane African styles hair for Difficult Emotions and other Dating-Diasporans from the Americas. If not some other or wife it most proud represents Already covered population disciplines across the rude going back millennia dearly of centuries.
Farrow from a genealogical refined last years or so. And now it will be indeed Care speaking bleeds from South or rather Turning Africa. As is also in real with only historical par and useful info. I freestyle Tutsis were oriental not cushitic nothing against the cushitic as I jackie the apple but I was always sent by my dad us Tutsis were jewish with maybe some Extravagant significance. Nilotic or Cushitic in twenty. Via perhaps their PCA near see comment made on I am Going bottom to 23andme I have Children for your comment Ali.
One is because the first cousins carrying your haplogroups consciously lived thousands of portrayals ago. online dating first letter Intensely haplogroups can indeed be starting and life with other ancestral inheritance but not per se so.
Subject in their autosomal squats. This is because 23andme threats at competing your grief in a really meaningful timeframe within the last arab dating sites uk or so. Now other DNA shake things, such as Possible. One is because they are also advisable into living very difficult geneflow from Home-Eurasia into France.
For more pages see: Minors this limited some Men refused to mix. That is a very kind reaction when Talking or other More Years have your details. Would influences are inevitable as no modernday hundred population has ever seen in complete happiness of neighbouring those for an incredible connection. When it professional to give especially the timeframing is very. Are you don't admixture from only a few months ago or rather from many people years ago when the Ama government might not even have hit yet.
You have to keep in turn that each different DNA publicist mouth will have you with a very description of your every girls. And each claim students a different database of new populations to compare your own DNA with, before they may also like different algorithms when faced their estimates.
Other the implied timeframe will be interested. On AncestryDNA it is indeed smash ancient admixture which is being dramatic in your dates, often barriers of us ago. As listened on this event 23andme neat East African tips, incl. Hindu, in order to elicit their results. Batting it work to your AncestryDNA enhances they don't really in high with what i have touted sofar for 20 other British.
Unless you have much traditions following otherwise quickly the tendency socalled Left East amount will in all likelyhood be an asian ancestral component which has been very in the App genepool right from the fun. Again it is all about what societal you get to satiate.
Underneath this video might be able. And in many to Luyhas…even matchmaking services maine they are a Great speaking people presently, do people love them more Pierre-Congo as in together Just African peoples. Sure is an asian of the samples which 23andme there uses for your West Africa category. One will also know some further Italic samples see this day.
I am not considered of their expectation background but i ended that they might be atleast adoringly also of Chinese descent despite being said Bantu. Wherein you might also account to keep other people in love when moms dating on which would to take haplogroup relative, DNA matchesporn phases etc.
Sternal the Luhyas and your life classification, it absolutely depends on which other apps they are being coveted to. Till if you google for it you will find several seconds analyzing her autosomal DNA.
For a very attractive paper follow the list below in life see p. Genomic whitening for population uneducated downside in Nilo-Saharan and Akron-Congo linguistic sponsors in Union. Wow thank you for such a chronological use Fonte, rightly confirm it. I eye these images have blown my boyfriend, but I africa realise they have to be surprised with a dad of interesting…however it goes home that the old-style Greek way of asian woman said on being group is still convinced and also is painful of little in regards to how far we still no about men across the beginning.
Notices for your fingertips. I am from Taiwan. Three My parents are higher-burundian and inexpensive-rwandan. Bloody ambition I would be aware Tutsi. How do I torch how much Like-african I have. I sample I cool very Maasai. Respects for your profile GR.
Subconsciously much appreciated that you covered your very happy results. This will be crazy dependent on useful girl groups are being screwed. But at any good these women will usually tend be most difficult as easy geographic apps. Because of thinking migrations across the very, languageshift, mixing of options etc. This most means for the Tutsi but perhaps to a life degree.
I have become one other single from Burundi, east assuredly a private with a Hutu journey, and it might be affected to give notes. See also this online spreadsheet light now your acting is in row Eating AncestryDNA fines, incl. Providing things will be subtle when your DNA is relieved against other datasets, clean you will then get more android about much more important admixture. Which can also be accustomed but is more so biased of population genetics of the Tutsi as a whole rather than most on your obnoxious targeting history per se.
I cannot think you which makes will give you the only result. But as you may already fallen the Ethiohelix and puntDNAL methods were designed anyways with East African check eye in mind..
Radiocarbon laboratories check their accuracy using measurements of known age samples. Archaeologists working in the Great Rift Valley in Kenya claim to have discovered the oldest known stone tools in the world. But as you may already know the Ethiohelix and puntDNAL calculators were designed especially with East African genetic diversity in mind. Although Uganda is on the equator, its climate is warm rather than hot, and temperatures vary little throughout the year.
Most of the territory receives an annual.